Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act, 1970 has been under the gun ever since it was introduced to the Act through an amendment in 2005. Foreign pharmaceutical companies have time and again failed to establish that the letter of this provision violates the TRIPS, and have, recently, in an aggressive move, tried to attack its validity by stating that the spirit of the section is not in compliance with the TRIPS. This move, which could hamper India’s pharmaceutical Industry, was effected by the US and Switzerland by challenging Section 3(d) in the WTO arena by reviving the principle of ‘Non-violation complaints’ which allows a Country to question the policy of another member country even if there is no actual violation of an agreement.
Nowadays, the Internet has become the most popular medium for commercial organisations to promote themselves. This is because the internet has no boundaries or closing hours. Every person who wishes to use the internet as a medium needs a domain name. A domain name is nothing but a network address that helps identify a particular entity on the internet. Usually, a domain name consists of two parts – the top level domain (TLD), which is used to identify the organisation that owns it or the geographical area where it originates and the second level domain, which identifies the unique administrative owner associated with an Internet Protocol address. (For example, in example.com, .com is the TLD whereas example is the second level domain name)
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